I think generally speaking it is a correct assessment that China is a partial power," he says. Shi, who describes Shambaugh as his "good American friend" and with whom he has shared a number of conference platforms, says that with its rapid emergence, China still has work to do in building relations with the rest of the world, particularly its neighbors.
This is where we should build our influence. Shambaugh argues that one of China's weaknesses is its failure to understand "soft power", a concept associated with Harvard University's Joseph Nye. James B.
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If they are a bit rough around the edges or not as nimble and sophisticated as others in applying that money then they will have to learn how to do it better — but to imply it can't be bought, I disagree. Zhao Minghao, a research fellow of the China Center for Contemporary World Studies, the Communist Party of China think tank, does see a greater role for Chinese soft power in extending the country's influence in the world.
Even in the Party congress report and the government work report, there is reference to soft power. China has many resources for soft power and they have to find a way to use these resources. Jacques, a former editor of Marxism Today and deputy editor of The Independent in the UK, does not believe that China should be unduly concerned with this type of power. If you want to be a political or military power on a regional or a global basis then you must have economic power but there is always a lag," he says.
US economic development for more than a century after the American Civil War led to it becoming a superpower after when it ended its isolationism. The Soviet Union collapsed like a pack of cards after because it didn't have economic power to underpin its military strength. He insists that real influence is nothing to do with selling McDonald's everywhere or having an international audience for Hollywood films.
It will be China's economic strength that will lead to it having real power and influence in the world since that is what ultimately matters," he says. Heimowitz says how a country is viewed abroad need not be a barrier to its commercial success, something proved to some extent by the acceptance of Japanese products in China.
Niall Ferguson, professor of history at Harvard University and author of Civilization: the West and the Rest, believes that China is on the way back to shaping the world. The best-selling British historian insists there is a complacency in the US about the rise of China. I say they are wrong. China has a plan and it is no secret because they publish it to shift away from a reliance on exports to the West and toward more domestic consumption. There is no guarantee the Chinese will continue to fund the federal deficit," he says.
Some believe the relative slowdown of the China economy will actually give the Chinese leadership the time to more clearly think about China's role in the world. Odd Arne Westad, professor of international history at the London School of Economics and author of Restless Empire, China and the World since , says it could avoid having such a heavy responsibility placed on it too soon.
The first enclosed shopping mall—Southdale Center, in a suburb outside Minneapolis—opened in The suburban development trend also benefited the automobile industry as cars became necessities for everyone. In less than a decade, half of all American households owned a TV set. Products ranging from clothing to shoes to household products and cars were in demand around the world. Fast-forward 50 years. Today, whenever I visit my grandchildren in California, one of the highlights is our trip to retailing giant Target to buy toys. I limit them to picking out two items each within a certain budget, which means they spend many agonizing minutes trying to decide what to buy.
This coincidentally allows me the opportunity to check out products on nearby shelves. With my background in consumer marketing, I always enjoy looking at new products. In fact, Chinese exports form the basis of contemporary consumer culture: computers, smart phones, wall-sized flat-screen TVs, cameras, camcorders, GPS systems, portable e-book readers, and other modern essentials. After yet another Christmas awash in plastic toys and electronic gear, Bongiorni decided to live for one year without buying any products made in China.
But why would a Westerner want to boycott Chinese products? And this is patently untrue. Blaming China for manufacturing woes in America simply does not make sense. The collapse of the dynastic system ushered in the turbulent "warlord period," however, with regional power centers competing for control. The country was partially reunited under the army of Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist Party in , but it was invaded by Japan in and subsequently engulfed by World War II.
In the s some Chinese found in Marxism an explanation for China's subjugation by the imperialist powers, a scientific method to achieve economic prosperity for all, and a means of defeating the imperialist powers through a revolution led by the working class Theme 1.
During the Japanese occupation, the CCP established rural as opposed to urban bases in peasant areas, following the Long March of into the remote mountainous area of Yenan. The CCP gained strength by calling for united resistance against the Japanese and experimenting with land reform and other policies to ease the plight of the peasants. After World War II ended with the defeat of Japan in , a civil war continued between the Nationalists and the Communists over the right to lead China's political and economic development and to re-establish China's position in the world.
Since the Chinese Communist Party CCP , has exercised authoritarian power as a single party, making policy and controlling all state functions; party organizations exist in every social institution of any importance at all levels of society. Membership is selective and provides benefits in the form of access to scarce goods, housing power, status, and information.
The party has evolved from an organization of revolutionaries committed to an ideology a vanguard party Theme 4 to an organization of the privileged whose membership brings material gain, and whose proclaimed ideology justifies its monopoly of power. The policies of the CCP have been directed at meeting the two central challenges facing China in the 20th century: economic development and modernization to benefit the world's largest population Theme 2 , and the reestablishment of China's position and identity as a world leader.
Ever since his death in , new policy experiments have been undertaken to spur economic development. Among these has been the "open door" policy of increased economic and cultural interaction with Europe, the United States, and Japan, a departure from the policy that had prevailed for three decades of limiting China's participation in the world economy. Mao Zedong laid great stress on the need to adapt Marxism, a Western ideology, to the Chinese context Theme 1 ; this led to the development of "Maoism" or "Mao Zedong Thought.
Mao's philosophy was particularly evident in the treatment of those who deviated from party policy. If anyone strayed from the party line, a "struggle" would be undertaken to reform and return the "deviant" to what was viewed as a useful role in society. The Chinese belief in man's perfectibility through education might also be seen in Mao's belief that by participating in the revolutionary struggle, the peasantry could become the key element in the Chinese revolution. This contrasted with the orthodox Marxist view that urban workers, the proletariat, were central to the revolution, but it was appropriate to China's situation as a predominantly peasant society Theme 1 and Theme 4.
Mao disparaged pure book learning however, and emphasized education through practice. Also in contrast with orthodox Marxist theory, Mao believed that man could overcome objective conditions and accomplish things by sheer force of will or "voluntarism" as depicted in the traditional Chinese fable of "The Foolish Old Man Who Moved the Mountains," which he cited.
This has led to tension between being "red" i. This conflict became particularly acute during The Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution , when Mao encouraged "de-professionalization" and "de-urbanization" of industry and in lieu of formal education, sent students to the countryside to live with and learn from the peasants, who were idealized as the source of revolutionary zeal.
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Party members, whose qualifications were primarily political, had authority over experts, such as factory managers and school principals, reflecting again the Chinese notion that moral qualities, not technical experience, ultimately benefit society Theme 4. Following Mao's death a new approach to economic development was espoused by China's leaders under Deng Xiaoping Teng Hsiao-p'ing. Market mechanisms and material incentives are gradually replacing state control and moral exhortation as techniques for managing the economy, and there is greater interaction with international markets Theme 6.
Foreign investment is welcomed and China's provinces, particularly in the coastal area, are vying to compete with the other newly emerging economic powers in Asia — Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. China occupies the third largest land area in the world surpassed only by the Russia and Canada , with the world's largest population Theme 2 , estimated at approximately 1. Population control has become a central element in China's economic development policies, in the recognition that continued growth could negate any gains made in this area and would impose impossible demands on the government's plans to provide adequate food, housing, education and health care.
As of , approximately million people were employed in agriculture and million in the urban sector. The goal is a reversal of this ratio early in the 21st century, with 80 percent of the population employed in industry and services — a social and economic transformation of major proportions. In order to achieve economic modernization, the government that came to power in had to find a way to squeeze the very small surplus out of the countryside where 80 percent of the population lived and invest it in industry Theme 2. Leaving it to the market was seen as slow, inefficient and inequitable, so the commune system of collectivized agriculture was implemented.
Property was pooled to form large tracts of land that could be farmed more efficiently. Land was owned jointly by large groups of peasants who by sheer force of human labor rather than relying on state investment, would together carry out projects of land reclamation and water control. They were rewarded for their communal labor by a system of work points, while the state exacted as much surplus as possible for investment in industrial development.
Families were given only very small plots for their personal farming, and markets for the sale of rural produce were limited mostly to the exchange of goods among local residents. Although the commune system did allow the state to extract the maximum surplus from the countryside, at times it was disastrous, resulting in widespread famine, particularly during at the end of the Great Leap Forward. It was ultimately judged inefficient and having major disincentive effects, and was abandoned in the early s.
Under agricultural reforms instituted in the s and expanded further into the s, farming is now contracted to individual peasant families who are encouraged to increase output through market incentives. In addition to the cultivation of crops, peasant families are now encouraged to engage in animal husbandry and various forms of family manufacturing and service enterprise.
Rural industry — both owned and operated by village and town governments as well as private and family businesses — has expanded very rapidly into the s. Industry needs to absorb agricultural labor, made available with the introduction of efficient techniques of production, and to provide additional sources of income. Farmers are encouraged to cultivate larger tracts of contiguous fields to improve efficiency. Emphasis on population control is closely related to these policies. The new agricultural policies have been successful in raising output, but the return to family farming works against population control Theme 2.
Another reason for the success of China's economic reforms since the s in raising output is the almost instantaneous re-emergence of the traditional Chinese market system Theme 6. Local periodic markets, free markets, the use of brokers, local forms of credit, networks of "merchants" and handicraft producers have all reappeared beside the large-scale state-run industries, the smaller rural cooperative industries, and the dynamic, fast-growing sector of small private enterprise. Even local towns are growing and becoming more prosperous as the government once again permits those in rural areas to move to cities or at least to towns.
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Permanent migration to large cities is still prohibited for fear of losing an agricultural work force and to avoid the difficulty of feeding a large urban population — however, uncounted tens of millions of rural Chinese are able to stay in the towns and cities as temporary, seasonal migrants. Family The family unit persists as the primary unit of social and economic organization in China Theme 3 , despite periodic attempts by the government to incorporate family enterprise into larger socioeconomic units, such as communes.
State The persistence of the ideal of state management of society presents a potential obstacle to development. Government is still viewed as responsible for people's welfare and for solving people's problems Theme 3. Mao's concern with grain production and procurement, to insure adequate supplies to feed the entire population, was in part responsible for economic dislocation and famines in the s.
Redefining China's relationship with the United States
The requirement of regional self-sufficiency in grain resulted in its being grown in areas more suited to producing commercial crops. Fears of grain shortages are reflected in the state's determination to maintain grain quotas and in demands for regional self-sufficiency. State enterprises have proven difficult to reform, because they have been responsible for ensuring full employment and for funding and delivering a wide range of social insurance and urban services to citizens.
After 20 years of reform, however, the state sector itself is being placed under increasingly severe financial pressures, as national and regional governments are refusing to subsidize state enterprises at their previous levels. The challenge of providing unemployment insurance and new jobs for the millions who have been laid off since the mids is now a pressing social and political issue. Individual and group The individual's position within the group, whether family or work unit, remains important Theme 5.
In urban areas during the Mao era, most people were assigned to a work unit factory, office, school by the government.
On Equal Terms : Redefining China's Relationship with America and the West
People rarely change work units, usually remaining in the same work place for the rest of their lives. If a person does find another job, in most cases permission to change must be obtained from the old work unit. Work unit officials keep employee dossiers in which they record personal and political information, adding to them as they see necessary.